History of Bolton, formerly part of Albion Township, Ontario, Canada
George Bolton Era 1821 – 1845
George Bolton Era, 1821 – 1845
In 1819, James Chewett, son of the Deputy Surveyor of Upper Canada, was appointed as surveyor for Albion Township.
He completed the survey in August that same year and was paid with 2635 acres of land, (approved at 4.79% of the total acreage) which he hand-picked himself including a particularly valuable 200 acre mill site along the Humber River.1
In 1821, George Bolton age 22, purchased that same mill site from James ChewettLOT 9, Conc 7, ALBION. It is from this transaction that Bolton has evolved.2
One of George’s first tasks was to build himself a house which was later described as a frame, roughcast building.3
In 1822, George and his brother James Charles Bolton(James Sr) started building a grist mill at the round curve along Mill Street.JamesSr,, 17 years older than George and an experienced millwright,took charge of the construction.
The frame structure which was at least two storeys high had one run of stone and was probablysheltered under a gable roof andby exterior board cladding
The two also built a wooden dam across the Humber River behind which a large mill pond took shape.4
The mill, owned and operated by George was grinding grain for flour by 1824 .
Around 1830, George Bolton provided land and a log structure for use as a school.5
In 1831 he built a log store at the corner of King and Mill Streets.The following year, in 1832, the government appointed George as Postmaster which required him to provide premises which he did by housing the Post Office, named ALBION, in his log store.6
The mill operation would have required more than one man but it is not known who assisted George Bolton in the early years. His nephew James Cupper Bolton(James Jr) became his assistant in the 1830s.7
The early, largely commercial, development of ‘Bolton Mills’ slowly evolved around Mill Street By 1834, there were 3 or 4 log buildings in the clearing around the mill.8George sold the store to Samuel Sterne
It is worth noting that while the majority of early communities were ‘crossroads’ hamlets where sideroads ‘crossed’ a concession road, Bolton, however, is an exception where a river, in this case the Humber, was the deciding factor
George Bolton was generous in allowing skilled workers to set up shop and pay for their property as they worked.
Such was the case with cooper Francis McDonald.The grist mill needed barrels to transport flour and whether by chance or design,Francis found a ready opportunity and in 1836 left Toronto and started up a cooperage 9
Such was also the case with tanner Richard Paxman whose tannery was one of the 12 buildings in Bolton with roofs..10
By the late 1830s, Samuel Sterne was operating a distillery on his property along what was called Distillery Street.He made use of inferior grades of grain culled out by the mill.11
In 1842, a major flood destroyed the mill dam.The wooden dam was rebuilt, in the same location, but George signaled that he was ready to pass on control of the mill.12
Over the next 3 years, James Jr took over the day-to-day operations of the mill. Around 1843, he built a frame seasonal cottage which is part of the McFall home, Bolton’s oldest residence in order to provide housing formill workers.
In 1845, after 23 years as miller, George sold the mill, frame house and other property to James Jr.13
George had already built a plank-on-plank home on mill property to which he retired at the age of 46, now a ‘gentleman’.14
From a paper by Randy W. Widdis, Speculation and the Surveyor, Dept of Geography, Queens University,1982
Although mentioned in Esther Heyes ‘Story of Albion’ pg 236-238, the distillery operation was separate from the mill